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-       , 1 11 .
11 1 11 . 1897 . 11, . (11). : 1 . 11 1 11 1 . .
1989 1 1 1. , 1. 1 1 1- . 1 , , 1 . 1 . 1 ,, .(,1990;22)
17- 11 . 1 1(,1961;100)
1 1 ( ) 1 - . , 11 1 . . 1925; 20,1 140, .
5- 11 . 1 . 11 11 -, -1 1. 2- 11 , 1 . 11 1 . - 1.(,1961;100)
- 1 11 400-1 11 . 1 ( ). 1971- 1 1. , 1, 1. 7-6- 11 1 . 1- . 6- 11 1, 1 , 1 1 1, 1 433-388 .(, 1961;100)
4- 11 , 376- 1. .
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1 1 , , (1), 1.

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1 . (Eichwaldt)1838 1 1 (Cholcocondylas) 15. 1 (tscharkasen) . 1 ,(,1 ) (1,1,1). (1812-1814) 1
Prinz Albrecht von Preu?en(1863) 1,1 , Vasmer (1953) ,. Jenkins (1962;186) 1 1 1 1 1. 1 . (1908;206) 1 , . .
. :(1849;437) 1 ,(1841;26) , 11 , (1863;1,69) 1 1 (1979;9) 1,1 . 1: 1.

1300 1. Versache . -4- 11 y Ricardus 1 1 : - 1,1, 1 1 . 1333 , 1 , . 1 1 11 1 , 11 . 1551 .

1 1380- ,1395- . , 1. 1,.

1 1022- 1. 1 1 , 1 1 . 1. 1 1 11 .

1 1 . Genuesen 1 1497-1502 Tagonrog .

. 11 1 . 11 , 1 1561 1 1. 1 (Sir Jeremo Horsey)1 11 1 1 1 1. 1 . . 1 1. 1 , 1 . 1569- 6- 1. 1 . 1 11 1 1 1.

, .1 .1717 1 1 1 . 11 11.


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